The region is immensely rich with 4000 species of plants, having remarkable diversity in it's natural vegetation by virtue of its being at a great range of elevation. In addition to its' climatic variations, particularly in temperature and precipitation associated with the alignment and altitudes of ranges and nature of valleys, determine the altitudinal growth and variety of vegetation..
In the mixed forest, expect to see the distinctive white-capped water redstart, blue whistling thrush, leaf warblers, yellow-breasted greenfinches, Himalayan and scaly-bellied woodpeckers, white-tailed nuthatch and spotted forktails. Eurasian and blackheaded jays are found at lower altitudes, as are kingfishers, black-throated tits, flycatchers,Himalayan woodpeckers, Indian and Drongo cuckoos, barn swallows and winter wrens. Extensive chir forests extend from 1500m to 2300m across the many hill regions. Above the chir pine are temperate forests of horse chestnut, yew and sycamore, which give way to blue pine, bamboo and rhododendron. Birch groves are found in the upper regions to the west of the state. To appreciate the striking relationship between vegetation and elevation, consider the trek days from Bedni Bugyal down to the village of Loharjang on the Roopkund Trek This region also offers an exceptional range of wildflowers. The Valley of Flowers is famous for its meadow of endemic alpine flowers.
The flora of this region may be classified into tropihcal, Himalayan sub-tropical and sub alpine and alpine vegetation. The alpine and sub alpine zones are considered as the most natural abode of the largest number of medicinal plants. Considering the various parameters, the vegetation of this region, can broadly be divided into four parts
Due to the inaccessibility of the region and relatively fewer human habitations, the flora and fauna in the district are abundant. The forest cover is in the region of 60 - 80%,, housing a bewildering variety of trees, flowers, wild animals, birds, fish and butterflies. Trees of various kinds are found in different altitudinal ranges, for which they are best adapted. Between 1,000 - 2,000 m., the forest cover is almost exclusively of pine. The pine flowers between February and April, the seeds being shed in October. Pine trees are tapped for resin and their dry leaves used as manure. The biggest pine tree in Asia, with a height of 60.5 m., is found at Khoonigad, en route to Arakot from Mori.
Between 2,000 m - 3,000 m. are found forests of deodar, oak and rhododendron. Deodar (from the Sanskrit, deva - daru, divine - tree) is used for building temples. The wood from oak and rhododendron is utilised for agricultural implements while their leaves serve as cattle fodder. Beyond 3,000 m., forests of spruce, birch and fir are widespread. The bark of the birch tree (bhojpatra) was used in ancient times for recording manuscripts, some of which are still in excellent condition. Between 3,500 m-4,500 m. occur the bugyals, with a rich variety of flowering shrubs.